Hydrodynamic interaction is also an important factor for sailing vessels in encounter and overtaking manoeuvres in confined waters. Ship-ship interaction has been included in a real-time simulation
study for the approach to Eemshaven/ Emden where fast-sailing car carriers were overtaking slower sailing ships. More recently, encounter manoeuvres in the Yangtzekanaal in the port of Rotterdam were studied. This 570 m wide port basin is used for two-way traffic by ULCSs. Using real-time simulations, the possibilities and restrictions for such encounter manoeuvres in strong winds were investigated.