March 2020, during the Sustainable and Safe Passenger Ships conference organised by RINA, MARIN submitted two papers on 'Heel Angles in Turn and Passenger Safety' and 'Sewol Ferry Capsizing and Flooding', presenting the main conclusions:
- Stability of SEWOL was lacking (conversion, cargo, tanks, trim)
- Rudder excursion occured (helmsman, steering gear)
- Fast Turn with Large Heel (>18 degr.)
- Cargo ( not properly secured ), slided at 18 and 33 degr. heel
- The heeling increased to 45 degr.
- Water ingressed via scuppers and vent at C deck
- Water flowed through vent pipe into stabilisation room and E.R.
- Due to water on C deck, ferry capsized and flooded fast