March 2020, during the Sustainable and Safe Passenger Ships conference organised by RINA, MARIN submitted two papers on 'Heel Angles in Turn and Passenger Safety' and 'Sewol Ferry Capsizing and Flooding', presenting the main conclusions:
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Intact Stability regulations for passenger ships adopted in 2008 provide a formula with which to calculate the heel angle from several characteristics of the ship. According to the rule, the heel angle in a turn calculated with this formula cannot exceed 10 degrees. In the stability range provided by the SIC and tested by MARIN, the Sewol did not meet that IMO formula, so it is not surprising that the Sewol heeled more than 10 degrees during the accident.
MARIN proposes that, because we cannot check the actual maximum heel angle with the current formula, the IMO should specify the maximum heel angle of 15 degrees, around which passengers physically lose their balance, and adopt a new formula to verify it. MARIN prepared a proposal for revision to the Maritime Safety Committee of the IMO.