On the Measurement of Submersion Ice Resistance of Ships, Using Artificial Ice
This paper presents research in which an alternative to refrigerated ice for submersion resistance measurements on model scale is investigated. Artificial ice, made of polypropylene, is used as an alternative for refrigerated ice. Towing tests are performed at two different velocities, measuring the resistance with a load cell and recording the behavior with cameras. To validate the test results the Lindqvist prediction formula is used. From the results of the test it can be concluded, that the submersion resistance in artificial ice is higher than the results of the Lindqvist formula. The most apparent reason is sticking behavior of the material at low velocity. At higher velocity, the measured resistance is close to the Lindqvist results. However, the behavior of the ice floes shows a similar flow pattern compared to video coverage of refrigerated ice tests. Therefore it is expected that the model ice can be a viable alternative for refrigerated ice test, although more research into the friction mechanisms and comparison with full scale tests for further validation is recommendable.