KCS Added Resistance for Variable Heading
Experiments, CFD and PF studies are performed for the KCS containership advancing at Froude number 0.26 in calm water and regular waves. The validation studies are conducted for variable wavelength and wave headings with wave slope of H/=1/60. CFD computations are conducted using two solvers CFDShip-Iowa and STAR-CCM+. PF studies are conducted using FATIMA. For calm water, computations showed E<4%D for the resistance,<8%D for the sinkage, and <40%D for the trim. In head waves with variable wavelength, the errors for first harmonic variables for CFD and PF computations were small, <5%DR for amplitudes and <4%2 for phases. The errors for zeroth harmonics of motions and added resistance were large. For variable wave heading at /L=1.0, the errors for first harmonic amplitudes were <17%DR for CFD and <26%DR for PF. The comparison errors for first harmonic phases were E<24%2. The errors for the zeroth harmonic of motions and added resistance were again large. Local flow studies showed a significant fluctuation in the wake field which can affect the propeller/engine performance. Additionally it was found that the average propeller inflow to the propeller is significantly higher in waves.