pp=0.4 compared within 11.3%D of the data. TKE budget revealed that the production occurs at the vortex inception and is transported by pressure or turbulent fluctuations. The finite-difference solver provided better vortex decay predictions than finite-volume solvers for β=0°. Level-set and VoF provided similar wave elevation predictions except for breaking waves. The study indicates the need for more accurate turbulence closures. Future research should focus on investigation of: improved RANS models such as Reynolds stress transport model; and improved hybrid RANS/LES models to address the turbulence trigger and modeled stress depletion issues of DES.