Lots of things have changed in the role of tugs in port and terminal operations and design. First of all, the capabilities of tugs have increased enormously, technically and in consequence, operationally. The increased capabilities offer new possibilities in the nautical safety assessment of the port, both in its design stage as well as in the operational capabilities of an existing port or terminal. And secondly, not less important, the operational requirements around ports and terminals are changed. Some of these changes are due to more strict regulations, which followed from major accidents or oil spills. Others are imposed by port authorities that recognise that tugs are part of the total safety ystem of a port and can play a larger role in that system.
manoeuvring and nautical studiescfd developmentcfd/simulation/desk studiestime-domain simulationsinfrastructureauthorities and regulatorstransport and shippingport and channel designsafetysimulation