The profile of a ship rudder influences the forces it generates, which in turn influence the manoeuvring performance of a ship. Thus, rudder forces and moments should be calculated considering the profile. Instead of an empirical estimation of the rudder normal force coefficient, this paper applies a RANS method to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of various profiles, i.e. lift and drag coefficients. The RANS method is validated with a classic NACA 0012 profile and applied to 9 profiles from the NACA series, the wedge-tail series, and the IFS series. Furthermore, the 2D open-water RANS results are corrected for the effects of the propeller slipstream and the rudder aspect ratio. New regression formulas of the normal force coefficients are proposed for the tested profiles. These formulas are then integrated into a standard MMG model. Taking the KVLCC2 tanker as a reference ship, the manoeuvring model is validated with free-running tests executed by MARIN. Finally, the manoeuvring performance of the reference ship with various rudder profiles are quantified with turning and zigzag manoeuvres. The simulation results confirm that the wedge-tail series is most effective (largest manoeuvring forces) while the NACA series is most efficient (highest lift to drag ratio) among the tested profiles. The IFS series achieves a balance of effectiveness and efficiency.
manoeuvring and nautical studiescfd developmentcfd/simulation/desk studiesmanoeuvringinfrastructuremarine systemsdefencepassengers and yachtingtransport and shipping