Numerical aspects of including wall roughness effects in the SST k–ω eddy-viscosity turbulence model
This paper presents a study on the numerical requirements of including sand-grain wall roughness effects in the SST k–ω eddy-viscosity model. Three implementations are tried: two retain the direct application of the no-slip condition at the wall, the third is based on a wall function formulation. In the first two options the roughness effect is introduced via a change in wall boundary conditions, either for ω only or for k and ω. The two-dimensional flow along a finite flat plate is adopted to assess the numerical accuracy of the three approaches. The computed results are also compared with semi-empirical formula available in the open literature. It is demonstrated that sand-grain roughness effects can be simulated with acceptable numerical uncertainties with all three options, but the numerical settings to achieve that goal differ significantly.