Manufactured solutions for steady-flow Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solvers
This paper presents manufactured solutions (MS's) for code verification of incompressible flow solvers based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations. The proposed solutions mimic statistically steady, two-dimensional or three-dimensional near-wall turbulent flows in a simple domain (rectangle or rectangular box) at a given Reynolds number. The proposed analytical functions cover the mean flow quantities and the dependent variables of several eddy-viscosity turbulence models. Namely, the undamped eddy-viscosity of the Spalart and Allmaras and Menter one-equations models, from the one (SKL) and two-equation (KSKL) models proposed by Menter, the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence frequency included in two-equation k − ω models. A basic flow field resembling a turbulent flat plate flow is constructed with the turbulence quantities defined from ‘automatic wall functions’ that are supposed to reproduce more or less the normal behaviour of these variables. Alternative flow fields are constructed superposing a perturbation flow field that creates a ‘recirculation zone’. However, the near-wall solution of the basic flow is kept to avoid zero friction at the wall. Three-dimensional MS's are obtained from the blending of the basic two-dimensional MS's in the transverse direction. All flow fields satisfy mass conservation, i.e. mean velocity fields are divergence-free. The source functions required for the balancing of momentum and turbulence quantities transport equations and all the dependent variables and their derivatives are available in Fortran 90 modules.