Single point offloading
MARIN Photo Number 29057
General information
Single point mooring to a CALM buoy in shallow water has been the most important offloading option for many years. Nowadays it is also the preferred option for a lot of deep water field developments in combination with an FPSO for production and storage. Although the system looks simple, the hydrodynamics are not simple at all. Even in collinear environments of wind, waves and current ‘fish-tailing’ can occur of the shuttle tanker with its bow hawser connected to the buoy. The (viscous) damping forces that control these motions are extremely complex and require special attention in the numerical simulations of single point moorings.

Services & Activities
The Offshore Department has a lot of experience in the testing and numerical modelling of single point mooring operations. The TERMSIM tool was developed in the 1980’s to simulate the observed behaviour. Recently, as part of this ‘Offloading Operability’ JIP, this methodology was taken incorporated in the new SHUTTLE tool. These dedicated tools can be applied for our clients.

The Trials & Monitoring Department has been involved in full-scale measurements on several CALM buoys.

Facilities & Tools
Single point mooring model tests are carried out in the following MARIN facilities :

The following tools are used to study the behaviour of single point moorings :

Software Sales
Some software tools are available for commercial use outside MARIN. A complete overview of these software tools for sale can be found under Software Sales.

Experience
The list below gives a review of single point mooring projects carried out at MARIN:

  • Erha deepwater CALM buoy large scale model tests, scale 1:28.75 (SBM, 2003)
  • Kizomba SPM model tests, scale 1:60 (Single Buoy Moorings Inc., 2002)
  • Bonga SPM model tests, scale 1:60 (Single Buoy Moorings Inc., 2001)
  • Mooring tests on a shallow water CALM buoy (Bluewater, 1997)
  • Australian North West Shelf CALM (Bluewater, 1996)
The list below gives a review of Joint Industry Projects involving single point moorings carried out by MARIN:

  • Offloading Operability (development of SHUTTLE)
  • TERMSIM II Development
Most recent single point mooring papers presented by MARIN
(complete overview of papers can be found under Publications)

aNySIM, a versatile hydrodynamics engineering tool
Joris van den Berg, MARIN Report, 2014

Logistical scenario analysis for hydrodynamic applications
Jorrit-Jan Serraris, MARIN Report, 2014

A simulation tool to optimise tandem offloading operations
Jos van Doorn, MARIN Report, 2007

A New Method to Optimise the Operability of Deepwater Offloading Operations
Hielke Brugts (Bluewater Energy Services), Jos van Doorn, Tim Bunnik and Bas Buchner (MARIN), Deep Offshore Technology Conference (DOT), Vitoria, 2005

Coupled Mooring Analysis for a Deep Water CALM Buoy
Cozijn, J. L. and Bunnik, T.H.J., OMAE Conference, Vancouver, 2004

Most recent single point mooring articles written for MARIN Report
(complete overview of articles can be found under Publications)

aNySIM, a versatile hydrodynamics engineering tool
Joris van den Berg, MARIN Report, 2014

Logistical scenario analysis for hydrodynamic applications
Jorrit-Jan Serraris, MARIN Report, 2014

A simulation tool to optimise tandem offloading operations
Jos van Doorn, MARIN Report, 2007

A New Method to Optimise the Operability of Deepwater Offloading Operations
Hielke Brugts (Bluewater Energy Services), Jos van Doorn, Tim Bunnik and Bas Buchner (MARIN), Deep Offshore Technology Conference (DOT), Vitoria, 2005

Coupled Mooring Analysis for a Deep Water CALM Buoy
Cozijn, J. L. and Bunnik, T.H.J., OMAE Conference, Vancouver, 2004

Contact
For more information on how MARIN can help your organisation with the issue of single point mooring, please contact:

For model test and simulation activities: Offshore Department
For full scale measurements: Trials and Monitoring Department

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