Wind loads
General information
One of the important mean environmental loads on offshore structures are the wind loads. In high wind conditions the wind loads on the floater can be significant. In practice wind is not constant, but can vary both in velocity and direction. Wind spectra are often used to represent stationary wind conditions, while other conditions can be represented using a time record of the particular event (e.g. squall conditions).

Services & Activities
The Offshore Department has a lot of expertise in the field of wind loads on FPSOs, Semi-submersibles and Spars. Wind loads can be modeled in one of MARIN's basins, either by generating actual wind (using wind fans) or by applying a calibrated load to the model (using a wire attached to a winch or a weight). The wind loads are usually calibrated based on available wind load coefficients, e.g. from wind tunnel tests. Alternatively, the wind loads can be determined through calculations by using either a data base wind load coefficients (using measurement results for similar vessels), semi-empirical methods (building block approach, e.g. WINDOS) or CFD calculations with e.g. our in-house viscous-flow solver ReFRESCO.

Facilities & Tools
Wind loads are modelled in model tests carried out in the following MARIN facilities :

The following tools are used to study wind loads:

Software Sales
Some software tools are available for commercial use outside MARIN. A complete overview of these software tools for sale can be found under Software Sales.

The list below gives a review of projects carried out at MARIN in which special attention was paid to the modelling of wind loads:

  • Okume TLP and Tender Assisted Drilling (TAD) vessel tests (2006)
  • Atlantis semi-submersible (GVA / BP, 2002)
  • FPSO and shuttle tanker wind load measurements (Offloading Operatbility JIP, 2001)
  • Saipem 10000 drilling vessel (Saipem / Samsung, 1998)
Most recent papers on wind loads presented by MARIN
(complete overview of papers can be found under Publications)

Predicting Wind Loads For FPSO Tandem Offloading Using CFD
Koop, A.H., Klaij, C.M. and Vaz, G.N.V.B., OMAE Conference, Shanghai, 2010

Motions and Mooring Loads of an LNG-Carrier Moored at a Jetty in a Complex Bathymetry
Weiler, O., Cozijn, H., Wijdeven, B., Le-Guennec, S. and Fontaliran, F., OMAE Conference, Honolulu, 2009

Time Domain Analysis for DP Simulations
Jorrit-Jan Serraris (MARIN), OMAE Conference, Honolulu, 2009

On the power savings by an auxiliary kite propulsion
Naaijen, P., Koster, V. and Dallinga, R.P., International Shipbuilding Progress, 2006

Advanced and future hydrodynamic optimisation tools in sail yacht design
Ridder de E.J. and Gaillarde G., MDY Madrid Design Yacht 06, 2006

Most recent articles on wind loads written for MARIN Report
(complete overview of articles can be found under Publications)

WiFi JIP helps offshore wind industry take the next step in foundation design
Marcus Schiere & Erik-Jan de Ridder, MARIN Report, 2014

Wind Load modelling JIP underway
Koos Hoefakker, MARIN Report, 2013

Complex model tests on MOHO NORD Tension Leg Platform
Arjen Koop & Jule Scharnke, MARIN Report, 2013

Determining wind loads with CFD
Arjen Koop, MARIN Report, 2011

CFD for offshore applications
Arjan Koop & Guilherme Vaz, MARIN report, 2010

For more information on how MARIN can help your organisation with wind loads, please contact the Offshore Department, the Manoeuvring Department, the Seakeeping Department or MSCN for nautical training.

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