The numerical friction line
Author Eça L. and Hoekstra M.
Title The numerical friction line
Conference/Journal Journal of Marine Science and Technology
Paper no. DOI: 10.1007/s00773-008-0018-1
Month November
Year 2008
Volume 13
Number 4
Pages 328-345

Abstract
This paper presents a study on the numerical calculation of the friction resistance coefficient of an infinitely thin plate as a function of the Reynolds number.
Seven eddy-viscosity models have been selected: the one-equation turbulence models of Menter and Spalart-Allmaras; the k-x two-equation model proposed by Wilcox and its TNT, BSL and SST variants and the k-sqrt(k)L two-equation model. The flow has been computed at 14 Reynolds numbers in sets of seven geometrically similar Cartesian grids to allow a reliable estimation of the numerical uncertainty. The effect of the computational domain size has been reduced to negligible levels (below the numerical uncertainty). And the same holds for the iterative and round-off errors. In the finest grids of each set, the numerical uncertainty of the friction resistance coefficient is always below 1%. Special attention has further been given to the solution behaviour in the laminar-to-turbulent transition region.
Curve fits have been applied to the data obtained at the 14 Reynolds numbers and the numerical friction lines are compared with four proposals from the open literature: the 1957 ITTC line, the Schoenherr line and the lines suggested by Grigson and Katsui et al. The differences between the numerical friction lines obtained with the seven turbulence models are smaller than the differences between the four lines proposed in the open literature.

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