On the numerical accuracy of the prediction of resistance coefficients in ship stern flow calculations
Author Eça L. and Hoekstra M.
Title On the numerical accuracy of the prediction of resistance coefficients in ship stern flow calculations
Conference/Journal Journal of Marine Science and Technology
Paper no. DOI: 10.1007/s00773-008-0003-8
Month March
Year 2009
Volume 14
Number 1
Pages 2-18

Abstract
This article presents a study on the accuracy of the numerical determination of the friction and pressure resistance coefficients of ship hulls. The investigation was carried out for the KVLCC2 tanker at model- and full-scale Reynolds numbers. Gravity waves were neglected, i.e., we adopted the so-called double-model flow. Single-block grids with H-O topology were adopted for all the calculations.
Three eddy viscosity models were employed: the one-equation eddy viscosity and the two-equation k-sqrt(k)L models proposed by Menter and the TNT version of the two-equation k-x model. Verification exercises were performed in sets of nearly geometrically similar grids with different densities in the streamwise, normal, and girthwise directions. The friction and pressure resistance coefficients were calculated for different levels of the iterative error and for computational domains of different size. The results show that on the level of grid refinement used, it is possible to calculate the viscous resistance coefficients in H-O grids that do not match the ship contour with a numerical uncertainty of less than 1%. The differences between the predictions of different turbulence models were larger than the numerical uncertainty; however, these differences tended to decrease with increases in the Reynolds number. The pressure resistance was remarkably sensitive to domain size and far-field boundary conditions. Either a large domain or the application of a viscous-inviscid interaction procedure is needed for reliable results.

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