On the Measurement of Submersion Ice Resistance of Ships, Using Artificial Ice
Author Bergsma, J.M., Bouhuys, C.W., Schaap, T., Spaargaren, A.F., Zalm van der, M., Werff van der, S.E.
Title On the Measurement of Submersion Ice Resistance of Ships, Using Artificial Ice
Conference/Journal Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth (2014) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference
Month June
Year 2014

On the Measurement of Submersion Ice Resistance of Ships, Using Artificial Ice
With the opening of the Northern Sea Route on the rise, the interest of the maritime industry in the Arctic is growing. This means increased shipping, offshore construction and operations. Due to harsh weather and remoteness, ships need to have great trust in their capacity to handle the harsh environment. This is normally achieved by executing a refrigerated ice towing tank test.
However, these tests are expensive and inconsistent, producing different types of ice and thus somewhat different results for subsequent and equal tests. Mainly due to the inhomogeneous nature of ice, finite and discrete element methods do not provide an alternative for this method at this moment. In this paper a possible alternative for refrigerated ice is considered, namely the use of artificial ice. This artificial ice is made of polypropylene and attempts to model the refrigerated ice material properties to a certain degree. The artificial ice offers an advantage in comparison to refrigerated ice, because of the repeatability and therefore comparability since the properties of plastic are more controllable than refrigerated ice. Also the reduction in operational cost and improved accessibility could be significant, because a fully refrigerated towing tank would no longer be necessary. However, many problems arise when modeling plastic to behave like ice. The plastic in this paper is only used to predict the submersion part of ice resistance due to a multitude of parameters and difficulties in the bending and crushing of ice. Therefore the main question of this research is: Is artificial ice an alternative for refrigerated ice for the submersion part of the resistance of a ship in ice on model scale?

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