LNG-shipping safety around ports and terminals
Author J.H. de Jong
Title LNG-shipping safety around ports and terminals
Year 2004

Abstract
The design of port lay-outs and terminals suitable for LNG-carriers has to meet exceptionally high safety standards. The highly sensitive subject is always treated by the responsible parties with the utmost concern for the design of inherently safe terminals. This is reached through the careful choice of the terminal location within the port and the definition of strict nautical procedures around the entrance, transit, mooring and loading/unloading of the vessel.

In this short paper an outline is given of the maritime issues to be addressed if LNG offloading is envisaged. The issues are grouped around four main themes:
• Port infrastructure design;
• Nautical ship operations;
• Overall Port Shipping Safety;
• Training.

The above themes are interrelated. In greenfield sites many issues are free to determine hence laying great emphasis on the design of the total offloading operation, taking into account all possible interactions between the lay-out of the port, the envisaged operation, the future other port users and the required training levels of all involved personnel.
In existing ports often the port infrastructure (lay-out), supporting services (tugs, VTS, aids to navigation) and the other port users are boundary conditions in the process of defining the ship operations and in the assessment of the overall risk. However the safety primate of LNG operations often allows changes and adaptations to the existing (supporting) infrastructure and traffic flows in the port.

MARIN is covering through a good deal of the above mentioned nautical safety aspects and in the position to do so because of her high quality ship modelling both for manoeuvring and mooring purposes. Two of our latest projects in LNG-terminal development in Ferrol (Spain) and Milford Haven (UK) are, amongst others, a good example of an integrated, safety driven terminal development project. At the end of this paper these two examples are further detailed.
This paper focuses on the inshore LNG offloading terminals and jetties and does not cover the exposed offshore offloading concepts.

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