Project objectives – Problem(s) addressed
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes accurately predict the viscous flow around ship hulls at model scale, as validated with model experiments. However, for best practical use the focus should shift to ships at full scale. A main problem in that regard is that full-scale viscous-flow measurements needed for validation are lacking.

The principal technical objectives of EFFORT are:
  • To develop and validate the capability to make detailed, accurate, efficient and reliable predictions of the flow around ship hulls with propellers at full size.
  • Thereby, to provide accurate and fast design tools to fine-tune ship and propeller designs for optimal operation in reality; thus reducing required engine power, fuel consumption and emissions; and reducing damage, cost and discomfort caused by an inappropriate hull/propeller combination.
  • Thus, to make the design process faster, more accurate, more competitive and involving less risk.
Description of Work – Project summary
The work will mainly consist of:

  • A joint CFD development phase, in which extensions of existing CFD codes will be made that are essential to predict the flow around ship hulls at full scale.
  • A full-scale measurement campaign in which extensive flow measurements at sea on board of two vessels will be done using Laser-Doppler Velocimetry techniques. Corresponding model-scale measurements will be done using PIV and other techniques.
  • Collecting the most complete possible set of full-scale flow data for ships, consisting of some earlier experiments and the new data, in a database for full-scale CFD validation
  • Extensive validation studies of full-scale CFD predictions to establish the level of accuracy and improve the modelling.
  • Application of the tools developed and validated in the project to design studies proposed by the industrial participants in the project, to determine and demonstrate the benefits.
Expected results
The main output will be:

  • Extended and validated CFD techniques for predicting viscous ship flow at full scale, ready for practical application in design
  • An introduction to, and evaluation by, industrial participants, of the validated CFD tools
  • A database of full-scale ship flow experimental data for future use
  • Areport of the design consequences of using the full scale CFD, detailed validations, and conclusions regarding the proper modellingand numerical approach.

This is expected to be a decisive step forward in the use and usefulness of viscous flow computations in European ship design; and thereby, in the quality and efficiency of the design process.

Flyer as PPT-file

Project Details
Title: European Full-Scale Flow Research and Technology
Acronym: EFFORT
Contract number: G3RD-CT-2002-00810 (EFFORT).
Proposal number: GRD2-2001-50117
Total cost: 3285002 Euro
EU contribution: 2057037 Euro
Starting date: 2002
Duration: 36 months
Scientific Co-ordinator: B.Starke.
Organisation: Maritime Research Institute Netherlands
Organisation address: P.O.Box 28, NL-6700AA Wageningen, Netherlands
Contact: B.Starke
Tel: +31 317 493 301
Fax: +31 317 493 245
E-mail: b.starke@marin.nl
EC Scientific Officer: Mrs. C. Vivalda
E-mail: Claudia.VIVALDA@cec.eu.int

Partner Company – University name Abbreviation Country
Maritime Research Institute Netherlands MARIN NL
IHC Holland N.V. IHC NL
Kvaerner Masa Yards KMY FIN
Rolls Royce Kamewa R-R S
Van Voorden Gieterij B.V. VVG NL
Ship Design and Research Centre CTO PL
Bassin d’Essais des Carenes BASSIN F
Helsinki University of Technology HUT FIN
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS F
National Technical University of Athens NTUA G
Chalmers University of Technology CHAL S
Hamburgische Shiffbau-Versuchsanstalt HSVA D
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping LR UK
Maritime University of Szczecin WSM PL

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Author(s) Title Publication
E. van Wijngaarden Recent developments in predicting propeller-induced hull pressures pulses Ship noise&vibration conf. June 200, London,UK
M. Vissonneau A step towards the numerical simulation of viscous flows around ships at full scale, recent aceivements with the european union project EFFORT MARIN CFD 2005, Southampton, UK
SCHWEIGHOFER, J., REGNSTRÖM, B., STARKE, A.R. AND TZABIRAS, G Viscous-Flow Computations of Two Existing Vessels at Model- and Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers – A Study carried out within the European Union Project, EFFORT International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering – MARINE 2005, Oslo, Norway
Schweighofer, J. Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Free-Surface Flow around the Series 60 Ship at Model- and Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers Yearbook of the Society of Naval Architects of Germany, STG Summer Meeting, Poland, 2004
Schweighofer, J. Self-Propulsion Simulation of a Polish Research Vessel at Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers Maritime Research News, Volume 19, Number 2, 2004
Schweighofer, J. Viscous-Flow Computations of a Polish Research Vessel at Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers Maritime Research News, Volume 19, Number 1, 2004
Schweighofer, J. Viscous-Flow Computations of the Series 60 Ship at Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers Maritime Research News, Volume 17, Number 2, 2003
Maritime Institute of Finland Annual Report 2003 2003
Verkuyl, J.-B. and Raven, H.C. New EFFORT in full-scale CFD validation MARIN Report, Dec. 2002
Verkuyl, J.-B. and Raven, H.C. Joint EFFORT for validation of Full-Scale Viscous-Flow predictions The Naval Architect, Jan. 2003
Schweighofer, J. Viscous-Flow Computations at Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers Maritime Research News 1, Volume 17, Maritime Institute of Finland
Schweighofer, J. Viscous-Flow computations at Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers Using the RANS Solver FINFLO Nutts, September 2003
Schweighofer, J. Investigation of Two-Dimensional Transom Waves Using Inviscid and Viscous Free-Surface Boundary Conditions at Model- and Full-Scale Ship Reynolds Numbers 5th Numerical Towing Tank Symposium, Pornichet, France.
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